Gentlemen who are sent abroad should be made to realize that it is their special duty to represent National Socialist Germany. McCloy. > I'm curious if your opinion on this extends to, say, IG Farben providing Zyklon B to the Nazis. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. War crimes and crimes against humanity through participation in the, Membership in a criminal organization, the. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company. Karl Wurster, chairman of Degesch – the manufacturer of Zyklon B for the gas chambers of Auschwitz – became chief executive of BASF. The nerve agent Sarin was first discovered by IG Farben. The twelve trials were all held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. (Monowitz came to be known as Auschwitz III; Auschwitz I was the administrative centre and Auschwitz II-Birkenau the extermination camp.) [b][15], The Allies seized the company at the end of the war in 1945[a] and the US authorities put its directors on trial. 9, "Seizure of Property owned by I.G. In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B. In 1941, an investigation exposed a "marriage" cartel between United States-based Standard Oil Co. and I.G. Acting as leaders in a conspiracy to commit the crimes mentioned under counts 1, 2, and 3. Du Bois, Josiah Ellis; Johnson, Edward (1953). [52] Mann, who had been an SA-Sturmführer,[53] was the chair of Degesch's board. [37] One of IG Farben's subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers. Following several later mergers the main successor companies are Agfa, BASF, Bayer and Sanofi. Released in 1950, he was elected chair of Bayer's supervisory board in 1956 and remained in that position until 1964. Today, the plant operates as "Dwory S.A." Frankfurt . 10, October 1946 â€“ April 1949", The Authentic Records from the Nuremberg Tribunal Against the Oil and Drug Cartel, The “relay of life” to the next generation - IG Farben connection, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal,, United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 years, including time already served; died 1968, 4 years, including time already served; died 1960, 2½ years, including time already served; died 1962, Chief Counsel; Head of the legal department, Head of dept. Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1931 "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods". A cyanide-based pesticide that was invented in the early 1920s in Germany, best known as Zyklon B, ... IG Farben was formed in 1925 from a number of major chemical companies that worked closely together since World War I. Products At least 30.000 slave workers died in this camp; a lot more were deported to the gas chambers. During the planning of the invasion of Czechoslovakia and Poland, IG Farben cooperated closely with Nazi officials and directed which chemical plants should be secured and delivered to IG Farben. [62] As the Red Army approached Auschwitz in January 1945 to liberate it, IG Farben reportedly destroyed the company's records inside the camp,[63] and in the spring of 1945, the company burned and shredded 15 tons of paperwork in Frankfurt. [1] BASF was the nominal survivor; all shares were exchanged for BASF shares. "[42], By 1943 IG Farben was manufacturing products worth three billion marks in 334 facilities in occupied Europe; almost half its workforce of 330,000 men and women consisted of slave labour or conscripts, including 30,000 Auschwitz prisoners. Zyklon B was pure Prussic acid, a lethal poison produced by I.G. One of IG Farben's subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers. In February 1941 Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler signed an order supporting the construction of an IG Farben Buna-N (synthetic rubber) plant—known as Monowitz Buna Werke (or Buna)—near the Monowitz concentration camp, part of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex in German-occupied Poland. [2], Willing cooperation with the slave labor utilization of the Third Reich was a matter of corporate policy that permeated the whole Farben organization... For this reason, criminal responsibility goes beyond the actual immediate participants at Auschwitz. Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937. In World War II, Degesch (42.5 per cent owned by IG Farben) was the trademark holder of Zyklon B, the poison gas used at some Nazi extermination camps. This is absolutely original Nazi era advertising by the huge German chemical conglomerate and concentration camp operator I.G. Despite the extensive evidence presented by the prosecution that showed that the company had been deeply involved in Germany's rearmament after World War I from the onset, the tribunal rejected the charges for preparing an aggressive war and for conspiracy to that end. Most were quickly restored to their directorships and other positions in post-war companies, and some were awarded the Federal Cross of Merit. [62], The Americans seized the company's property under "General Order No. During a trip to the United States in the spring of 1903, he had visited several of the large American trusts such as Standard Oil, U.S. Steel, International Paper and Alcoa. IG Farben’s first contribution to Hitler and his Nazi party came at a crucial moment in the history. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al. [34] The company is perhaps best known for its role in producing the poison gas Zyklon B. Bayer, the company most known for their popular product Aspirin, has its own horrifying history with Nazi Germany. IG Farben - Wikipedia Between December 1943 and March 1944, Majdanek received approximately 18,000 so-called "invalids," many of whom where subsequently gassed with Zyklon B. Majdanek concentration camp - Wikipedia I — Indicted   G — Indicted and found guilty. He stated that: ...the record shows that Farben willingly cooperated and gladly utilized each new source of manpower as it developed. [citation needed] (see and ) It also brought new evidence concerning complex price and marketing agreements between DuPont, a major investor in and producer of leaded gasoline, U.S. Indu… [5] Several IG Farben scientists were awarded a Nobel Prize. Laajimmillaan IG Farben oli maailman neljänneksi suurin yritys General Motorsin, US Steelin ja Standard Oilin jälkeen. Ernst Struss, secretary of the IG Farben's managing board, testified after the war that the company's chief engineer at Auschwitz had told him about the gassings. Farben Leverkusen and sold from the Bayer sales office through Degesch, an independent license holder. [24] In 1904, after returning to Germany, he proposed a nationwide merger of the producers of dye and pharmaceuticals in a memorandum to Gustav von Brüning, the senior manager at Hoechst. [23] In contrast, the chairman of Bayer, Carl Duisberg, argued for a merger. [31], IG Farben was controversial on both the far left and far right, partly for the same reasons, related to the size and international nature of the conglomerate and the Jewish background of several of its key leaders and major shareholders. [7], The company had ties in the 1920s to the liberal German People's Party and was accused by the Nazis of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". The judges ruled that the prosecution had not shown that the defendants or executive board "had any persuasive influence on the management policies of Degesch or any significant knowledge as to the uses to which its production was being put". The defendants Ilgner and Kugler were released immediately after the judgement since they had already been in custody longer than their sentence. After the end of World War I, chemical companies in Germany merged to form IG Farben. Altogether its annual net profit was around RM 0.5 billion (equivalent to 2 billion 2017 euros). Also presided over the GfK (Society for Consumer Research) and the Foreign Trade Committee of the BDI, Federation of German Industry. When World War II began, it was the fourth largest corporation in the world and the largest in Europe. The minutes of a meeting of the Commercial Committee on 10 September 1937 noted: It is generally agreed that under no circumstances should anybody be assigned to our agencies abroad who is not a member of the German Labor Front and whose positive attitude towards the new era has not been established beyond any doubt. Weiler Ter Meer (1.9 percent). The tribunal concluded that the defendants could be held responsible only for this one case. Max Brüggemann (Farben's chief legal advisor) was removed from the trial and his case discontinued on September 9, 1947, due to medical reasons. Farben – Leuna plant] and Heinrich Gattineau [a Farben offic… Judge Hebert filed a dissenting opinion, in which he argued that the defense of "necessity" did not apply and that all defendants should have been found guilty on count 3 of the indictment. IG Farben has been described as "the most notorious German industrial concern during the Third Reich". Far-right newspapers of the 1920s and early 1930s accused it of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". "'Straight to Hell' Bypasses Substance,", "Records of the United States Nuernberg War Crimes Trials, United States of America v Carl Krauch et al. The Chief of Counsel for the Prosecution was Telford Taylor. The remaining property, worth DM 21 million (£6.7 million or €10.7 million), went to a buyer. The patients were suffering from, and in many cases had been deliberately infected with, typhoid, tuberculosis, diphtheria and other diseases, then were given preparations named Rutenol, Periston, B-1012, B-1034, B-1036, 3582 and P-111. This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 00:25. [18], At the beginning of the 20th century, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. [69] All were cleared of the first count of waging war. On one occasion they complained about the stench of the burning bodies. Telford Taylor was the chief counsel for the prosecution. [21], With the world market for synthetic dyes and other chemical products dominated by the German industry, German firms competed vigorously for market shares. [citation needed], Although IG Farben was officially put into liquidation in 1952, this did not end the company's legal existence. [45], For one experiment, which tested an anaesthetic, Bayer had 150 women sent from Auschwitz to its own facility. [51], Several IG Farben executives said after the war that they did not know about the gassings, despite the increase in sales of Zyklon B to Auschwitz. They produced everything from pharmaceuticals to manufacturing chemicals to explosives. The defendants in this case had all been directors of IG Farben, a large German conglomerate of chemical firms. 's immense productive facilities, its far-reaching research, varied technical expertise and overall concentration of economic power, Germany would not have been in a position to start its aggressive war in September 1939. [53] Hörlein became chair of Bayer's supervisory board. This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 22:10. Head of dept. [50], Peter Hayes (Industry and Ideology: I. G. Farben in the Nazi Era, 2001) compiled the following table showing the increase in Zyklon B ordered by Auschwitz (figures with an asterisk are incomplete). 52", 2 July 1945, which allowed the US to disperse "ownership and control of such of the plants and equipment seized under this order as have not been transferred or destroyed". But more controversially, IG Farben refused to … The liberal and business-friendly German People's Party was its most pronounced supporter. Neither were production or distribution facilities consolidated nor did the commercial staff cooperate. [29] The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950). Five smaller firms, Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Judge Hebert filed his statement on December 28, 1948, nearly 5 months after the judgment. This prompted Duisberg and Heinrich von Brunck, chairman of BASF, to accelerate their negotiations. [2] In 1945, according to Raymond G. Stokes, it manufactured all the synthetic rubber and methanol in Germany, 90 percent of its plastic and "organic intermediates", 84 percent of its explosives, 75 percent of its nitrogen and solvents, around 50 percent of its pharmaceuticals, and around 33 percent of its synthetic fuel.