Temples were frequently used to store votiveofferings. Its ground plan of 8 by 17 columns, probably pseudoperipteral, is unusual. Thus, for example, the naos length was sometimes set at 100 feet (30 m) (100 is a sacred number, also known from the hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 animals), and all further measurements had to be in relation to this number, leading to aesthetically quite unsatisfactory solutions. [42] The increasing monumentalisation of stone buildings, and the transfer of the wooden roof construction to the level of the geison removed the fixed relationship between the naos and the peristasis. A similar room at the back of the naos is called the opisthodomos. Contractors were usually only responsible for specific parts of the overall construction, as most businesses were small. The original advert contained all the information necessary to enable a contractor to make a realistic offer for completing the task. Many of the Greek statues well known from Roman marble copies were originally temple cult images, which in some cases, such as the Apollo Barberini, can be credibly identified. taenia and guttae) might be painted in different colours. The distance between the column axes (intercolumniation or bay) could also be used as a basic unit. The temple interiors did not serve as meeting places, since the sacrifices and rituals dedicated to the respective deity took place outside them, within the wider precinct of the sanctuary, which might be large. Dans la mesure où la topographie le permettait, les temples grecs étaient indépendants et conçus pour être vus de tous les côtés, à la différence des temples romains intégrés dans des complexes architecturaux (forum, sanctuaire) et dans lesquels la façade frontale tenait le rôle prépondérant. La partie fermée du temple comporte en son cœur le naos (dont le nom latin est cella), qui abrite la statue de la divinité. To preserve this connection, the single row of columns often found along the central axis of the naos in early temples was replaced by two separate rows towards the sides. An inscription referring to his sponsorship was indeed found on one of the columns. All architectural elements display slight variations from the right angle, individually calculated for each block. Another determining design feature was the relationship linking naos and peristasis. Between the 9th century BCE and the 6th century BCE, the ancient Greek temples developed from the small mud brick structures into double-porched monumental "peripteral" buildings with colonnade on all sides, often reaching more than 20 metres in height (not including the roof). le templegrec histoiresommairedesesorigines etdesondÉveloppementjusqu’auv*siÈcle avantjÉsus-christ par henrilechat ancienmembredel’Écoled’athÈnes chargÉdecoursal’universitÉdelyon paris ernestleroux,editeur 28,ruebonaparte,28 i902 the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek. All of this mathematical rigour is relaxed and loosened by the optical refinements mentioned above, which affect the whole building, from layer to layer, and element to element. This applies, for example, to the Graeco-Parthian and Bactrian temples, or to the Ptolemaic examples, which follow Egyptian tradition. Between the 6th and the late 4th century BCE, innumerable temples were built; nearly every polis, every Greek colony contained one or several. This conjunction of strict principles and elaborate refinements makes the Parthenon the paradigmatic Classical temple. Construit suivant l’esthétique de l’architecture dorique, le temple comptait 16 colonnes. Le sommet et les extrémités du fronton pouvaient être décorés d'acrotères. Exceptions are found in the temples of Apollo at Bassae and of Athena at Tegea, where the southern naos wall had a door, potentially allowing more light into the interior. The Temple of Isthmia, built in 690–650 BCE was perhaps the first true Archaic temple with its monumental size, sturdy colonnade and tile roof set the Isthmian temple apart from contemporary buildings.[6]. To clarify ground plan types, the defining terms can be combined, producing terms such as: peripteral double anta temple, prostyle in antis, peripteral amphiprostyle, etc. Hellenistic monarchs could appear as private donors in cities outside their immediate sphere of influence and sponsor public buildings, as exemplified by Antiochos IV, who ordered the rebuilding of the Olympieion at Athens. The peristasis was surrounded by 8 × 15 columns or 7 × 14 intercolumniations, i.e. Le temple grec (le temple se dit en grec ancien ὁ ναός, ho naós « l'intérieur », sémantiquement différent du latin templum, « temple ») est un type d'édifice religieux développé en Grèce antique dans le cadre de la religion grecque.Les temples, qui constituaient les lieux de culte les plus élaborés du polythéisme grec, ont donné lieu à des chefs-d'œuvre architecturaux. Le temple grec (le temple se dit en grec ancien ὁ ναός, ho naós « l'intérieur », sémantiquement différent du latin templum, « temple ») est un type d'édifice religieux développé en Grèce antique dans le cadre de la religion grecque. [33], It used to be thought that access to the naos of a Greek temple was limited to the priests, and it was entered only rarely by other visitors, except perhaps during important festivals or other special occasions. Other thematical contexts could be depicted in this fashion. This limitation to smaller structures led to the development of a special form, the pseudoperipteros, which uses engaged columns along the naos walls to produce the illusion of a peripteral temple. This shows a growing adjustment to the proportion and weight of Ionic temples, mirrored by a progressive tendency among Ionic temples to become somewhat heavier. The Classical proportion, 6 × 13 columns, is taken up by numerous temples, e.g. The Temple of Dionysos at Teos, normally ascribed to Hermogenes, does indeed have intercolumnia measuring 2 1/6 of the lower column diameters.[28]. [83] Its architectural members are entirely in keeping with the Asian/Ionic canon. An additional definition, already used by Vitruvius (IV, 3, 3) is determined by the number of columns at the front. The peristasis was of equal depth on all sides, eliminating the usual emphasis on the front, an opisthodomos, integrated into the back of the naos, is the first proper example in Ionic architecture. In contrast, from an early point, Ionic temples stress the front by using double porticos. at Mylasa[84] and, on the middle gymnasium terrace at Pergamon.[85]. To loosen up the mathematical strictness and to counteract distortions of human visual perception, a slight curvature of the whole building, hardly visible with the naked eye, was introduced. This produces an unobstructed surrounding portico, the peristasis, on all four sides of the temple. The columns stood on ephesian bases, 36 of them were decorated with life-sized friezes of human figures at the bottom of the shaft, the so-called columnae caelatae. As a side effect, each preserved building block from the Parthenon, its columns, naos walls or entablature, can be assigned its exact position today. The temple in the Heraion of Samos, erected by Rhoikos around 560 BCE, is the first known dipteros, with outside dimensions of 52 × 105 m.[60] A double portico of 8 × 21 columns enclosed the naos, the back even had ten columns. Greek temples (Ancient Greek: ναός, romanized: naós, lit. In Sicily, this habit continued into the Classical period. For example, the lower surfaces of Doric geisa could be decorated with coffers instead of mutuli. This early demand continued to affect Doric temples especially in the Greek motherland. the Tychaion at Selge[20][21] they tend to follow the canonical forms of the developing Roman imperial style of architecture[22] or to maintain local non-Greek idiosyncrasies, like the temples in Petra[23] or Palmyra. at the temple of Poseidon in Paestum. For example, surviving receipts show that in the rebuilding of the Artemision of Ephesos, a single column cost 40,000 drachmas. The spaces between the triglyphs contained metopes, sometimes painted or decorated with relief sculpture. L’architecture du temple Un temple grec se divise en deux parties : le sékos, la partie fermée, entourée de murs ; et le péristyle, la partie ouverte, délimitée par une colonnade. With the introduction of stone architecture, the protection of the porticos and the support of the roof construction was moved upwards to the level of the geison, depriving the frieze of its structural function and turning it into an entirely decorative feature. Greek temples were designed and constructed according to set proportions, mostly determined by the lower diameter of the columns or by the dimensions of the foundation levels. Even where a Greek influence is visible, such structures are not normally considered as Greek temples. Louise Bruit Zaidman et Pauline Schmitt Pantel. tempête en Grec ancien - Français-Grec ancien dictionnaire | Glosbe. In Archaic temples, a separate room, the so-called adyton was sometimes included after the naos for this purpose. For example, the Athenian Parthenon, first reconsecrated as a church was turned into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest and remained structurally unharmed until the 17th century AD. J.-C.. Plan au sol. a proportion of 5:10 or 1:2 intercolumnia. [80][81][82], A further plan option is shown by the temple of Hekate at Lagina, a small pseudoperipteros of 8 × 11 columns. They are normally made of several separately cut column drums. For example, the metopes at the front and back of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia depicted the Twelve Labours of Heracles. [64] The interior was structured with powerful pilasters, their rhythm reflecting that of the external peristasis. J.-C. : on distingue des temples archaïques, puis classiques, puis hellénistiques après le règne d'Alexandre le Grandet jusqu'à la conquête romaine. Hermogenes, who probably came from Priene, was a deserving successor[according to whom?] the size of an average football pitch. There is no door connecting the opisthodomos with the naos; its existence is necessitated entirely by aesthetic considerations: to maintain the consistency of the peripteral temple and to ensure its visibility from all sides, the execution of the front has to be repeated at the rear. Greek temples (Ancient Greek: ναός, romanized: naós, lit. [18][19] Although new temples to Greek deities still continued to be constructed, e.g. It is the foundation myth of the sanctuary itself, displayed here in its most prominent position. L’Érechthéion (du grec ancien Ἐρέχθειον / Erékhtheion) est un temple grec d’ordre ionique de la fin du Ve siècle av. Athens has the Parthenon and the even better preserved Doric Temple of Hephaestus, both once churches, as well two small temples on the Acropolis and a corner of the large Corinthian Temple of Olympian Zeus. The capitals of this structure were probably still entirely of wood, as was the entablature. The Corinthian order permitted a considerable increase of the material and technical effort invested in a building, which made its use attractive for the purposes of royals self-aggrandisement. [59] Thus, even at an early point, the axes of the naos walls aligned with the column axes, whereas in Doric architecture, the external wall faces do so. Many rural sanctuaries probably stayed in this style, but the more popular were gradually able to afford a building to house a cult image, especially in cities. The Acropolis of Athens is the most famous example, though this was apparently walled as a citadel before a temple was ever built there. In other regards, the Parthenon is distinguished as an exceptional example among the mass of Greek peripteroi by many distinctive aesthetic solutions in detail. Stereobate, euthynteria and crepidoma form the substructure of the temple. Both temples continued the tendency towards more richly equipped interiors, in both cases with engaged or full columns of the Corinthian order. The impressiveness of the internal aisle could be emphasised further by having a third row of columns along the back, as is the case at the Parthenon and at the temple of Zeus in Nemea. For example, innovations regarding the construction of the entablature developed in the west allowed the spanning of much wider spaces than before, leading to some very deep peristaseis and broad naoi. Additionally, columns were placed with a slight inclination towards the centre of the building. Temples were frequently used to store votive offerings. Study of the soils around temple sites, is evidence that temple sites were chosen with regard to particular deities: for example, amid arable soils for the agricultural deities Dionysos and Demeter, and near rocky soils for the hunter gatherer deities Apollo and Artemis. Cherchez des exemples de traductions temple dans des phrases, écoutez à la prononciation et apprenez la grammaire. Un temple grec se divise en deux parties : le sékos, la partie fermée, entourée de murs ; et le péristyle, la partie ouverte, délimitée par une colonnade.La partie fermée du temple comporte en son cœur le naos (dont le nom latin est cella), qui abrite la statue de la divinité.Derrière le naos, ou au fond de la même salle, se trouve parfois un adyton. A variant of that type has the opisthodomos at the back of the naos indicated merely by half-columns and shortened antae, so that it can be described as a pseudo-opisthodomos. Yeroulanou, Marina. At the same time, the Ionic temples were characterised by their tendency to use varied and richly decorated surfaces, as well as the widespread use of light-shade contrasts. Le seul exemple de temple dodécastyle (à douze colonnes en façade) connu est le temple d'Apollon à Didymes. Its naos was executed as unroofed internal peristyle courtyard, the so-called sekos. [75] It has been called "the most Hellenic structure yet found on Indian soil". The temple had 6 × 11 columns, i.e. Although of sacred character, their function as a temple can often not be asserted. Un autre temple de Zeus était en construction à proximité. The emphasis on the pronaos already occurred in the slightly older temple of Athena at Tegea, but there it was repeated in the opisthodomos. and achieved the final flourish of Ionic architecture around 200 BCE. Certains temples sont entièrement entourés de colonnes : cette colonnade extérieure est appelée péristasis, et les temples construits ainsi sont dits périptères ; dans le cas d'un édifice entouré entièrement d'une double rangée de colonnes, le temple est qualifié de diptère[6]. Such exceptions are probably connected with cult practice. The capitals support the entablature. Dans la mythologie grecque, les Amazones (en grec ancien Ἀμαζόνες / Amazónes ou Ἀμαζονίδες / Amazonídes) sont un peuple de femmes guerrières que la tradition situe sur les rives de la mer Noire, certains historiens les plaçant plus précisément sur les … Since the overall number of columns required for the design was 120, even this aspect of the building would have caused costs equivalent to those of major projects today (circa 360 million euro).[38]. According to this proportion, Vitruvius (3, 3, 1 ff) distinguished between five different design concepts and temple types: The determination and discussion of these basic principles went back to Hermogenes, whom Vitruvius credits with the invention of the eustylos. The peristasis often had a depth of two column distances, e.g. The uppermost level of the crepidoma provides the surface on which the columns and walls are placed; it is called stylobate. The grid of the temple of Magnesia was based on a 12-by-12-foot (3.7 m × 3.7 m) square. [76], The youngest of the three Classical Greek orders, the Corinthian order came to be used for the external design of Greek temples quite late. In the 4th century BCE, a few Doric temples were erected with 6 × 15 or 6 × 14 columns, probably referring to local Archaic predecessors, e.g. Le temple grec n'apparaît qu'au cours des siècles obscurs (époque proto-archaïque), peut-être au IXe siècle av. Individual mythological scenes, like the abduction of Europa or a cattle raid by the Dioscuri could be thus depicted, as could scenes from the voyage of the Argonauts or the Trojan War. The cult statue was often oriented towards an altar, placed axially in front of the temple. La fonction première du temple est d'abriter les statues des divinités ainsi que les biens que la divinité possède, principalement les offrandes qui lui sont faites. La partie fermée du temple comporte en son cœur le naos (dont le nom latin est cella), qui abrite la statue de la divinité. It is based on a 6-by-6-foot (1.8 m × 1.8 m) grid (the exact dimensions of its plinths). Thus, the east pediment at Olympia depicts the preparations for a chariot race between Pelops and Oinomaos, the mythical king of nearby Pisa. As a result, numerous temples of the Classical period in Greece (c. 500 BCE to 336 BCE) had 6 × 13 columns or 5 × 11 intercolumnitions. This is partially due to the influence of the architect Hermogenes of Priene, who redefined the principles of Ionic temple construction both practically and through theoretical work. This relationship between the axes of walls and columns, almost a matter of course in smaller structures, remained undefined and without fixed rules for nearly a century: the position of the naos "floated" within the peristasis. The nearly mathematical strictness of the basic designs thus reached was lightened by optical refinements. La civilisation minoenne et la civilisation mycénienne, qui célébraient leurs cultes dans les maisons et les palais, ou bien en plein air, n'ont pas construit de temples. Its differentiation between wider intercolumnia on the narrow sides and narrower ones on the long sides was also an influential feature, as was the positioning of the columns within the naos, corresponding with those on the outside, a feature not repeated until the construction of the temple at Bassae 150 years later.[44]. Vérifiez les traductions 'temple' en Grec ancien. J.-C., les anciens temples grecs se sont développés à partir des petites structures de briques en bâtiments monumentaux à double portique avec colonnade de tous les côtés, atteignant souvent plus de 20 mètres de hauteur (toiture non comprise). The naos consisted of a pronaos of four column depths, a four columns naos, and a 2 column opisthodomos. It is rare for scenes to be distributed over several metopes; instead, a general narrative context, usually a battle, is created by the combination of multiple isolated scenes. The building was entirely of marble. The Temple of Hephaistos at Athens, erected shortly after the Parthenon, uses the same aesthetic and proportional principles, without adhering as closely to the 4:9 proportion.[49]. Its responsibilities included the advertising and awarding of individual contracts, the practical supervision of the construction, the inspection and acceptance of completed parts, and the paying of wages. Again, the corners contain separate scenes, including Heracles fighting Triton. Noms communs en grec ancien La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 26 avril 2020 à 15:19. Afterwards, another committee would supervise the building process. But generally Greeks, including slaves, had a reasonable expectation of being allowed into the naos. at Temple of Hera I, Paestum, and temples C, F and G at Selinus,[56] classifying them as pseudodipteroi. Instead of longer antae, there are prostyle colonnades inside the peristasis on the front and back, reflecting Ionic habits. One of the few exceptions is the early Classical Temple D, an 8 × 20 columns peripteros, at Metapontum. In conjunction with the number of columns per side, they also determined the dimensions of stylobate and peristasis, as well as of the naos proper. In the late Hellenistic period, their decreasing financial wealth, along with the progressive incorporation of the Greek world within the Roman state, whose officials and rulers took over as sponsors, led to the end of Greek temple construction. Doric temples in Greater Greece rarely follow this system. Cependant, le palais crétois et le mégaron mycénien inspireront la conception du temple grec ultérieurement, notamment au niveau de l'entrée et du porche[1]. The Greeks used a limited number of spatial components, influencing the plan, and of architectural members, determining the elevation. All of these details suggest an Alexandrian workshop, since Alexandria showed the greatest tendency to combine Doric entablatures with Corinthian capitals and to do without the plinth under Attic bases. The middle architrave block was 8.74 m long and weighed 24 metric tons; it had to be lifted to its final position, 20 m above ground, with a system of pulleys. On pense que les premiers temples grecs sont apparus vers le IXe siècle av. As far as topographically possible, the temples were freestanding and designed to be viewed from all sides. Columns could reach a height of 20 m. To design such large architectural bodies harmoniously, a number of basic aesthetic principles were developed and tested already on the smaller temples. The individual members of its Doric orders all differ considerably from the later canon, although all essential Doric features are present. [68] other early pseudodipteroi include the temple of Aphrodite at Messa on Lesbos, belonging to the age of Hermogenes or earlier,[69] the temple of Apollo Sminthaios on Chryse[70] and the temple of Apollo at Alabanda. Le grec ancien était souvent écrit seulement en majuscules et sans espace, comme sur certaines tombes. The beginnings of Greek temple construction in the Doric order can be traced to early in the 7th century BCE. The elaboration of the temple's external aspects served to stress the dignity of the naos. "Architecture in City and Sanctuary". 1967 p.129. J.-C. qui voit l'émergence de l'ordre dorique et ionique. Here, already on the Archaic temples, the lower parts of the column shafts were decorated by protruding relief decorations, originally depicting rows of figures, replaced on their late Classical and Hellenistic successors with mythological scenes and battles. Écrit par Martine Hélène FOURMONT • 472 mots Terme grec qui désigne tout endroit sacré « dont l'accès est interdit ». Some temples could only be viewed from the threshold. The canonical solution was found fairly soon by the architect Libon of Elis, who erected the Temple of Zeus at Olympia around 460 BCE. Curvature and entasis occur from the mid 6th century BCE onwards. Ces temples sont alors de simples cabanes qui abritent les statues de culte. The early temples also show no concern for the typical Doric feature of visibility from all sides, they regularly lack an opisthodomos; the peripteros only became widespread in the area in the 4th century BCE. All of the superstructure is affected by curvature. For the replacement, a crepidoma of ten or more steps was erected. Neither the Ionic temples, nor the Doric specimens in Magna Graecia followed this principle. An example is Temple C at Thermos, c. 625 BCE,[40] a 100-foot-long (30 m) hekatompedos, surrounded by a peristasis of 5 × 15 columns, its naos divided in two aisles by a central row of columns. The construction of large projects, such as the temple of Apollo at Didyma near Miletus and the Artemision at Sardis did not make much progress. Battle scenes of all kinds were also a common theme of Ionic friezes, e.g. Early Ionic columns had up to 48 flutings. Apart from early forms, occasionally still with apsidal backs and hipped roofs, the first 100-foot (30 m) peripteral temples occur quite soon, before 600 BCE. Its architect combined the dentils, typical of Asia Minor, with an Attic frieze, thus proving that the colonies were quite capable of partaking in the developments of the motherland. The largest such structure was the Olympieion of Akragas, an 8 × 17 columns peripteros, but in many regards an absolutely "un-Greek" structure, equipped with details such as engaged, figural pillars (Telamons), and a peristasis partially closed off by walls. The image stood on a base, from the 5th century often carved with reliefs. This might include many subsidiary buildings, sacred groves or springs, animals dedicated to the deity, and sometimes people who had taken sanctuary from the law, which some temples offered, for example to runaway slaves. In spite of the eight columns on its front, the temple is a pure peripteros, its external naos walls align with the axes of the 2nd and 7th columns. The corners and ridges of the roof were decorated with acroteria, originally geometric, later floral or figural decorations. Nom propre [modifier le wikicode] Métroon \ Prononciation ? Its entirely Doric entablature is indicated by painted clay plaques, probably early example of metopes, and clay triglyphs. It was the first monumental peripteros of Ionia, erected between 350–330 BCE by Pytheos. The pronaos was linked to the naos by a door. The Maison Carrée at Nîmes (France), from 16 BCE, a typical Roman temple, is a Corinthian hexaystyle pseudoperipteros. The main temple building sat within a larger precinct or temenos, usually surrounded by a peribolos fence or wall; the whole is usually called a "sanctuary". Early examples probably include the Serapeum of Alexandria and a temple at Hermopolis Magna, both erected by Ptolemaios III. Temple G, Selinus, with well-defined adyton. There, the architrave was directly followed by the dentils. About architectural sculpture: M. Oppermann: Retallack, G.J., 2008, "Rocks, views, soils and plants at the temples of ancient Greece". In proportion to the bottom diameter, the columns reached three times the height of a Doric counterpart. The most complete remains are concentrated in Athens and southern Italy; several are described in more detail above, under their orders. Its curvature affects all horizontal elements up to the sima, even the naos walls reflect it throughout their height. Placed on the stylobate are the vertical column shafts, tapering towards the top. Ionic volute capitals survive from the outer peristasis of the later rebuilding by Polycrates. The roofs were crowned by acroteria, originally in the form of elaborately painted clay disks, from the 6th century BCE onwards as fully sculpted figures placed on the corners and ridges of the pediments. Tout d'abord, il est important de préciser que le temple grec est consacré à une divinité. The few Greek temples in the Corinthian order are almost always exceptional in form or ground plan and are initially usually an expression of royal patronage. Some exceptions existed, e.g. Recherchez parmi des Temple Grec photos et des images libres de droits sur iStock. Fragments of two chryselephantine statues from Delphi have been excavated. Qualificatifs « savants » : temple périptère [péri = autour) en général hexastyle [6 colonnes (= stulos en grec) sur les petits côtés ; 4 colonnes = tétrastyle ; 8 colonnes = octostyle]. Once inside the naos it was possible to pray to or before the cult image, and sometimes to touch it; Cicero saw a bronze image of Heracles with its foot largely worn away by the touch of devotees. The frieze was clearly structured by use of colours. Le temple n'est pas un lieu de culte mais une demeure divine. Photo à propos Temple d'Apollo à Corinthe, Grèce. In contrast, the term peripteros or peripteral designates a temple surrounded by ptera (colonnades) on all four sides, each usually formed by a single row of columns. After the mid-6th century BCE, the compositional scheme changes: animal scenes are now placed in the corners, soon they disappear entirely. The inclination of its columns (which also have a clear entasis), is continued by architrave and triglyph frieze, the external walls of the naos also reflect it. The temple is considered semi-classical, with a plan essentially that of a Greek temple, with a naos, pronaos and an opisthodomos at the back.